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Part VII: Women in the 1990s
& Sources and Resources for Further Study
Learn more about selected WS topics by clicking the hyperlinks embedded in these timelines.
And if you find inaccuracies, bugs, or other websites relevant to timeline topics, please let me know: email@example.com
The timeline pages are under construction and probably always will be...
|1990||Ms. Magazine took a new stance by dropping all advertising (see also Ms Magazine homepage)|
|1992||Petra Kelly, founder of the German Green Party, was shot to death while sleeping.|
|1992||Mae Jemison (b. 1956) left her medical practice and became the first black woman in space.|
"Don't let anyone rob you of your
imagination, your creativity, or your curiousity. It's
your place in the world, it's your life.
|1992||Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b. 1959), Guatemalan leader internationally known for her work in the promotion of the defense of human rights, peace and Indigenous Peoples' rights, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992, becoming the first Indigenous and the youngest person ever to receive this distinction. (see Interview with Rigoberta Menchu and another hyperlinked|
|1993||President Bill Clinton commissioned Maya Angelou to compose a poem "On the Pulse of the Morning" [The Rock Cries Out to Us Today'] for his inauguration.|
I treasure most in life is being able to dream.
During my most difficult moments and complex situations
I have been able to dream of a more beautiful future."
Rigoberta Menchú (b. 1959), winner of the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize
|1993||The photo of 5-year- old Irma Hadzimuratovic, a victim of the Bosnian war, turned attention to the plight of noncombatants. Irma died April 1 after being airlifted to a London hospital. (See also 1994 Los Angeles Times "World View: The Littlest Victims of Global 'Progress" by Robin Wright.)|
|1993||Donna E. Shalala (1941- ) was selected by President Bill Clinton to be U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services. A dynamic leader, she outlined five major policy initiatives for her first year: revision of health-care financing, expansion of the Head Start program for preschool children, universal childhood immunizations, expansion of AIDS research, and welfare reform. In the 1960s, he served two years in the Peace Corps in Iran, and after graduating from Syracuse Univ. in 1970, she taught political science at Bernard Baruch College, then taught politics and education at Columbia Teacher's College. In 1975, Shalala became director and treasurer of the Municipal Assistance Corporation, which helped reverse New York City's financial collapse. In 1977 she became assistant secretary for policy research and development at the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), where she promoted women's issues, working toward the creation of battered women's shelters, mortgage credits for women, and anti-discrimination measures. Shalala served as president of Hunter College in New York City (1980-1988), then became chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the first woman to head a Big Ten school.|
|1993||Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1933- ), American jurist and professor of law, was appointed the United States Supreme Court, the second woman on the Court after Sandra Day O'Connor (photo), who was nominated in 1981. Ginsburg has worked toward ending institutionalized discrimination against women. Educated at Cornell, Harvard, and Columbia, and despite graduating from Columbia Law School at the top of her class, she encountered difficulties in finding a job in a traditionally male profession.. Ginsburg attracted notice in the 1970s for her teachings and litigation aimed at ending institutionalized discrimination against women. Between 1973 and 1976 she argued six cases on women's rights before the Supreme Court, winning five of them.|
|1993||Toni Morrison (b. 1931) won the Nobel Prize for Literature (see Web Page of Toni Morrison's novel Beloved|
really think the range of emotions and perceptions
I have had access to as a black person and a female person are
greater than those of people who are neither.... My world did not shrink
because I was a black female writer. It just got bigger."
Toni Morrison (b. 1931), celebrated U.S. novelist
|1993-94||Title IX requirements raised the number of women participating in basketball (see 1924 photo), cross country, diving, fencing, field hockey, golf, gymnastics, lacrosse, rifle, skiing, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, track, and volleyball. Signed into law by Pres. Nixon in 1972, Title IX of the Educational Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in any education program or activity within an institution receiving any type of federal financial assistance.|
inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York include former
Congresswomen Geraldine Ferraro and Bella Abzug, entertainer Oprah Winfrey, Olympic runner Wilma Rudolph, first female surgeon general Dr. Antonia Novello, ERA supporter Catherine East,
financier Muriel Siebert, and the Reverend Betty Bone Schiess,
first female Episcopal priest.
Fighter pilot Lt. Kara Hultgreen was killed while landing an F-14A Tomcat on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln.
|1995||Dr. Yvonne Bryson led a study at UCLA of a newborn who beat the HIV virus.|
"Women have always
struggled with their men-folk for the abolition of
Mongella of Tanzania selected
to head the United
Nations' Fourth World Conference on Women
(4-15 September 1995, Beijing, China). President Clinton appointed Marjorie
Margolies-Mezvinsky to head the American
delegation. Over 17,000 people registered for the event,
including delegates from nearly 200 countries. The
Platform for Action that emerged from the conference
focused on the removal of obstacles to womens equal
participation in society. The most controversial sections
of the platform concerned reproductive rights,
particularly the right to have an abortion.; and the
final document declared that "the ability of women
to control their own fertility forms an important basis
for the enjoyment of other rights." (See Beijing '95 - Women, Power, and Change; Background & Objectives: Action for
Equality,Development and Peace; Critical Areas of Concern; Beijing
'95 - Women, Power, and Change: Follow-Up and
Nations Commission on the Status of Women)
Beijing Declaration of Indigenous Women developed by an NGO Forum, UN Fourth World Conference on Women; approved and signed on 7 September 1995 at the Indigenous Women's Tent, Huairou, Beijing, China.
|1995||President Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton (see photo)broke ground at Arlington Cemetery for a semi-circular monument and reflecting pool, to be tended by curator Kathryn Sheldon. The memorial, designed by Marion Gail Weiss and Michael Manfredi, honors the 1.8 million women who served the military since 1776, of whom 350,000 are active, 200,000 are dead and 1.2 million are veterans.|
|1995||Jeanne Calment of Arles, France reached the age of 120.|
|1995||The Miami community mourned the death of Cuban painter Antonia Eiriz.|
|1995||Winnie Mandela's role in South Africa was overshadowed by charges of abuse of power, kidnapping, and terrorism (see Sept. 1997 article).|
|1995||Attorney Christine Loh joined Hong Kong legislator Emily Lau in protesting the 1997 dissolution of the Hong Kong government|
|1995||Nobel Peace Prize winner (in 1991) and freedom fighter Aung Suu Kyi of Burma (Myanmar) ended six years of house arrest.|
"It is not power
that corrupts, but fear.
|1996||The International Year for the Eradication of Poverty, declared in 1993, was followed by the United Nations proclamation of the first Decade for the Eradication of Poverty, "Emphasizing that empowering women will be a critical factor in the eradication of poverty, since women constitute a majority of people living in poverty and since they contribute to the economy and to combating poverty through both their remunerated and their unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the workplace,..." from the Resolution adopted by the United Nations' General Assembly, Jan. 1996.|
|1996||Women's Equality Day is August 26, celebrating a successful non-violent civil rights movement -- the passage of the 19th Amendment of the United States Constitution which gave women the right to vote. (Visit Ohio Historical Sites "dedicated to women trailblazers.")|
stereotype is the easiest to do, but is not a rational
thinking. What Baoyu said ``men are made of earth, women
are made of water'' is simply not true. Every individual,
no matter man or woman, is made of both ``earth'' and
``water''. Nothing good comes naturally. Good manners,
high quality of an individual do not come naturally
either. It takes great efforts. As almost every adult has
experienced, to grow is a painfully struggling process.
That is why education, sense of family, sense of
community are so important in one's growing process
during which women and men hold equal
|1997||On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the 1948 U. N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, women's groups from Latin America and the Caribbean have prepared a contribution the theoretical construction of human rights, "Declaration Of Human Rights From A Gender Perspective " that they hope to have adopted to strengthen world women's economic and social rights.|
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Sources and Resources for Further Study
I gratefully acknowledge inspiration and content for these hyperlinked timelines from the following sources:
"75 Suffragists." From: http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/Vote/75-suffragists.html [accessed November 1997].
"And Still They Persevered...A Brief History." From: http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/Vote/brief-history.html [accessed November 1997].
Banner, Lois W. "Woman Suffrage." Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corp, 1993-1997.
Bois, Danuta. "Distinguished Women Past and Present." From: http://www.netsrq.com:80/~dbois/ [accessed November 1997].
Bunyan, Maureen. "Special Salute to the United States Feminist Movement" [speech delivered at Expo '96 for Women's Empowerment]. The Feminist Majority Foundation and New Media Publishing, 1996. From: http://www.feminist.org/action/exposalute.html [accessed December 1997].
Cooney, Robert. "Taking a New Look The Enduring Significance of the American Woman Suffrage Movement." From: http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/Vote/enduring-significance.html [accessed November 1997].
DuBois, Ellen Carol, ed. Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony: Correspondence, Writings, Speeches. New York: Schocken Books, 1981.
Gale Research. "Gale Research celebrates Womens History Month: Timeline." [With bibliography.] From: http://www.thomson.com/gale/whmtime.html [accessed November 1997]
(See also Biographies from: http://www.thomson.com/gale/whmbios.html [accessed November 1997].)
Jaggar, Alison M., and Paula S. Rothenberg. Feminist Frameworks: Alternative Theoretical Accounts of the Relations between Women and Men. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
"The Men Behind the Women." From: http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/Vote/male-suffragists.html [accessed November 1997].
National Women's History Project. "History of Woman Suffrage in the United States." Brooks and Gonzalez, 1995. From: http://www.city-net.com/~lmann/women/history/timeline.html [accessed 11/97]
Reese, Lyn, dir. "Women in World History Curriculum." 1996-1997. From: http://home.earthlink.net/~womenwhist/ [accessed 11/97].
Rossi, Alice S. The Feminist Papers: From Adams to de Beauvoir. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press, 1988.
Ruthsdotter, Mary, and National Womens History Project. "Years of Hope, Years of Struggle: A Few Important Dates from the Woman Suffrage Movement." From: http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/Vote/years-of-hope.html [accessed November 1997].
Schultheiss, Katrin. "Womens Rights." Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corp., 1993-1997.
Scott, Joan Wallach, ed. Feminism and History. Oxford Readings in Feminism. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, ed. The History of Woman Suffrage. Vol. 1. New York: Fowler & Wells, 1881.
Tanner, Leslie B., ed. Voices from Women's Liberation. New York: Signet, 1970.
Warhol, Robyn, and Diane Price Herndl, ed. Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1993.
Womens International Center. "Women's History in America." Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc., 1994. From: http://www.wic.org/misc/history.htm [accessed November 1997].
For more internet resources on
Women's & Gender Studies, go to WS Links
TOP of this page Part VII: Women of the 1990s & Sources and Resources for
Women's Studies Historical Timelines were prepared by Cora Agatucci, 1997
Part I: Women Make Early History
Part II: 17th & 18th Century Women
Part III: Modern Struggles for Equality
Part IV: Struggle for the Vote
Part V: U.S. Woman Suffrage Is Won
Part VI: Women in the 20th Century & "Second Wave" Feminism
WS 101 Syllabus Cora's Classes Cora's Home page[../../../footer.htm]