WS 102 M/W- Cora Agatucci
Introduction to Studies in Women and Gender:

[ WS102 Syllabus | Course Plan | Assignments | StudentWriting |
WSTimelines | Women'sHistoryMonth |
WS 101 Links | WS 102 Links-HumanitiesTopics | WS102Women's Arts | WSFilms]

Women's & Gender Studies Links:
General Resources; Communication, Cinema & Media Studies; Women's Arts;
Women's History, U.S. Women's History;
Women Writers, African-American Women, Toni Morrison & Beloved;
Carol Shields & The Stone Diaries. For more, see WS 101 Links

"The Preamble to the Constitution begins, 'We, the people.' Yet, the phrase,
inspiring as it is, has not always included all Americans.
Women’s history in America has been the story of
the struggle of women of all racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds
to be included in that simple but powerful statement.
It is the story as well of how, in striving to reach their own great potential,
women have strengthened and enriched our Nation."
President Clinton, Proclamation Designating the Month of March
"Women's History Month"

General Resources

From Joan Korenman, Univ. of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1998:
What is Women's Studies?

Women-Related WWW Sites in the Arts and Humanities

Gender-related electronic forums
Comprehensive list of electronic discussion lists in the area of women’s and gender studies

"Why is gender important? The simplest answer is because it's there.
'Gender,' meaning the differentiation, usually on the basis of sex,
between social roles and functions labeled as 'masculine' and 'feminine,' is universal:
all societies known to us in all time periods make some sort of gender distinctions.
As a central feature of all cultures, gender seems worth some attention.
from "What Is Feminism (and why do we have to talk about it so much)?"
Mary Klages (U. Colorado, Boulder)

Academic Info: Women's Studies - An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources (Library Specialist, Mike Madin) 1998, including Women & Religion, Women's Studies International

Danuta Bois's Distinguished Women of Past and Present is organized by Fields of Activity, including Humanities fields like Architecture and Interior Design, Art, History, Invention, Journalism and Mass Media, Literature and Poetry, Music, Philosophy, Photography, Religion, and Stage and Screen.

The Woman Question - Reader Resources: Texts and Contexts (Heath Anthology of American Literature website, Gen. Ed. Paul Lauter)

"I myself have never been able to find precisely what feminism is.
I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments
that differentiate me from a doormat."
--Rebecca West, English writer, (pub. in The Clarion, 1913)
The Feminist Chronicles 1953 - 1993 (chronology of the feminist movement, primarily in the U.S.,
including early documents from the National Organization for Women and a bibliography);
see also The Feminist Theory Website (though still under construction as of 12/97)

The Fawcett Library - The National Library of Women, "exists to document the changing role of women
in society, in the past, now and in the future. . . . and to make these available to personal and to remote users, however they make contact. It maintains links with other women centred libraries in an informal world wide network." <> London Guildhall Univ., 1998. Reading Lists at the Fawcett Library on topics such as "Women’s Suffrage in Britain" - <>

Feminism and Women's Studies (The English Server, English Dept., Carnegie Mellon Univ.)
"This page publishes women's studies and feminist works, particularly focusing on issues of sex, gender, sexual identity
and sexuality in cultural practices." <>

Gender Inn (Universität zu Köln, in English and German): Bibliographic database of literary criticism and gender studies focussing on British and American literature, plus general resources and introductory texts in feminst theory; and interdisciplinary feminist literature on pedagogy, sociology, history and psychology.

Database of Women’s Studies (Univ. of Maryland) Conferences, Call for Papers, Bibliographies, Articles, Syllabi.
Extensive List of Bibliographies by and about women:

Women in the Curriculum: Introductory Bibliography for Curriculum Transformation (Compiled by Sara Coulter for NCCTRW-National Center for Curriculum Transformation Resources on Women, Towson State Univ.)

WWWomen! Internet, with search function and topical listings of special interest to women.

Women's Studies EuroMap (Centre of Women's Studies of Antwerp, Belgium, 1998)

Women’s and Gender Studies (Voice of the Shuttle - Humanities research, Univ. of Calif, Santa Barbara)

Women's Studies Core-Lists & Selected Bibliographies (Univ. of Wisconsin), e.g. on Feminist Theory, Feminist Pedagogy, Lesbian Studies, Sociology, Language, Women and World Literature, Women Mystery Writers.

Eve Online Ecofeminism <>
Key Topics: eco-feminism, global economics, feminist theory

Women in the Humanities, designed for a UCSB Women's Studies class

NCCTRW - National Center for Curriculum Transformation Resources on Women (Towson Univ.)

Women and Religion links (Univ. of Washington, Comparative Religions)

NOEMA: The Collaborative Bibliography of Women in Philosophy
with a clickable list of Authors ( Philosophy Dept., Indiana Univ. Southeast)

WS102: Women's Arts
Quilting; Renaissance Women Artists

"I'll Make Me A World" celebrates the extraordinary achievements of
20th-century African-American writers,
dancers, painters, actors, filmmakers, musicians, and other artists
who changed forever who we are as a nation and a culture.


WS Historical Timelines & Women's History Month

"History looks different when the contributions of women are included."
--National Women's History Project

Historical Text Archive: Women's History (Don Mabry, Mississippi State Univ.)

ViVa: A Bibliography of Women's History in Historical and Women's Studies Journals [ViVa is short for "Vrouwengeschiedenis in het Vaktijdschrift", which is Dutch for "Women's history in scholarly periodicals"].
articles about women's and gender history, published in English, French, German and Dutch are selected from more than eighty European, American and Indian Journals (compiled by International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1998)
Includes bibliographies on General, Theory and Historiography ; Antiquity and Middle Ages; Early Modern History (1500-1800); Modern History (from 1800 onwards); Nineteenth Century; and Twentieth Century

Encyclopedia of Women's History: Written by and for K-12 Community (Sponsored by Portland Jewish Academy)

Women in World History Curriculum (Lyn Reese) "Interactive site full of information and resources about women's experiences in world history. For teachers, teenagers, parents, and history buffs."

The NCCTRW History Page lists publications devoted to curriculum transformation on History, U.S. History, and European History.
Women in the Curriculum: Introductory Bibliography for Curriculum Transformation (Compiled by Sara Coulter, Towson Univ.)

Diatoma: Women and Gender in the Ancient World, including Biblical Studies links,
Diotoma: Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in the Ancient World <> (Univ. of Kentucky, 1998).
Brooklyn Museum of Art's Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt,
UPenn's Women's Lives in Ancient Greece, & links to Art Collections.
Women of Ancient Egypt (The Mining Co.);
The Status of Women in Ancient Egyptian Society (Peter A. Piccione, Northwestern Univ.)
Greek, African, and Native American Goddesses
Notable Women Ancestors (Sam Behling)
Female Heroes! (Lyn Reese, Women in the World History Curriculum)
and a list of Women's Rights in Ancient Egypt

Women and the Middle Ages, from Academic Info's Medieval History
Women Writers Of The Middle Ages (Bonnie Duncan, English Department, Millersville University),
Medieval Feminist Index and More Links on Medieval Women (Haverford Libraries), and bibliographies for
L. Foxall's course on Gender in Ancient Social Life (School of Archaeological Studies, University of Leicester)

Medieval Feminist Index "covers journal articles, book reviews, and essays in books about women, sexuality, and
gender during the Middle Ages," compiled by librarians and scholars from various universities, 1997.
"The time period covered is 450 C.E. to 1500 C.E. with Russia extending to 1613, the beginning of the
Romanov dynasty, because the sixteenth century is still medieval in social and politicial terms. The geographic area is Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East as well as areas in which Europeans travelled. Subject coverage for gender and sexuality means that articles on masculinity and male homosexuality are included. Publications in English, French, German, and Spanish are currently being indexed. Material in other languages, notably Italian, will be added in the near future." <>

Medieval Women (Martin Irvine and Deborah Everhart; Stefan Zimmers, 1997-98) <>
from The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies, Georgetown University Medieval Web Site and International Clearinghouse for electronic resources.

Gale Research's Women's History Biographies, including Joan of Arc (c. 1412-1431) and Queen Elizabeth I .
or see sources & activities on Women Rulers.
Horus's Women's History Links (Dept. of History, Univ. of California-Riverside).

Renaissance Women: Courtly Power and Influence

u.s. women's history

The President's Commission on the Celebration of Women in American History
established to celebrate the roles and accomplishments of women in American History,
with links to pages devoted to women in history.
Presidential Proclamation: WOMEN'S HISTORY MONTH, 1998

Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848 - 1998
(on the 150th anniversary of Seneca Falls Convention, National Women's History Project)
The Seneca Falls Convention
(on-line exhibition by the National Portrait Gallery commemorating
the Women's Rights Convention, held July 19-20, 1848)

The Huntington Library & Botanical Gardens Presents: Votes for Women
An online Virtual Exhibition, with Picture Gallery, Tour, hyperlinked Essays, & Readings
"The quest for women's suffrage was a struggle, which plagued America for 72 years,
for the simple and inalienable right of representation and equality.
The beginning of the movement in 1848 was marked by the
Seneca Falls Convention,
where its most prominent leaders
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
the Declaration of Sentiments,
the defining document of the women's movement.
From this initial standing, the suffragists began the crusade
for women's enfranchisement [
19th Amendment].
Together these few leaders would rally for women's suffrage throughout their lives."
--Teachers and students of the San Marino Unified School District (SMUSD)
& the staff at The Huntington Library, 1997

Places Where Women Made History:
A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary
Part of the U.S. National Register's Discover Our Shared Heritage travel itinerary series
highlights 74 historic properties in Massachusetts and New York in America's official list
of places important in our history and worthy of preservation,
with "interactive maps, descriptions of each place's significance in women's history,
photographs, information on public accessibility, essays on women's achievements in American history,
and links to other pertinent Web sites."

Pioneering Women in American Memory
< >
"Throughout American history, pioneering women have forged ahead to make a better life
for themselves, their families, and their society.
These women include pioneers who journeyed across the country
to settle unknown western territories, as well as
women who struggled for recognition as equals
in politics, in the workforce, and in their communities.
Search [Library of Congress'] American Memory for thousands of items
documenting the history of women in the United States" (Feb. 1998).
Special Topics: Westward Ho | Suffrage | The Struggle for Equality | On the Job | Women Today
Library of Congress URL:
Questions about American Memory? NDLP Reference Librarian:
Learn More About It: Feature Presentation on Pioneering Women

Documents from the Women's Liberation Movement, an On-line Archival Collection (Digital Scriptorum, Special Collections Library, Duke Univ.)<>1997, including Carol Hanisch's Fight on Sisters: and Other Songs for Liberation. Plus more from Women's Archives, including slave letters and memoirs of African American Women and correspondence and diaries of Civil War Women.

Godey's Lady's Book Online, one of the most popular lady's books of the 19th century, and compare Gender Stereotypes and Expected Behaviors (Social Studies School Service).

Hearts at Home: Southern Women in the Civil War (online exhibition of the Univ. of Virginia, 1997): Illustrations & quotes from Primary Texts on Patriotism, Petticoats on Pedestals, War Work, Spies, Griefs & Anxieties, Religion, Education, Music & Poetry, Hard Times at Home, Yankees at Our Doorsteps, Refugees, Slavery & Freedom, End of an Era

American Women's History, from Academic Info, an Annotated Directory of Internet Resources
Resources & activities for Women Living in the Old West (Gale Research)

What Did You Do in the War, Grandma? - An Oral History of Rhode Island Women during World War II, written by students in the Honors English Program at South Kingstown High School, featuring 26 online Interviews (Linda Wood, Judi Scott, and Brown University's Scholarly Technology Group, 1997). <>)
Also at this site: short essays It Was Everybody's War, by Dr. William Metz; Women and World War II, by Dr. Sharon H. Hartman Strom and Linda P. Wood; links to other WWII related sites, a WWII timeline, and Bibliography.

The Comparative Women's History Workshop (Paisley Harris and Lisa Ebeltoft-Kraske, Univ. of Minnesota) <>

Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Archival Resources on the History of Jewish Women in America (Phyllis Holman Weisbard, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1997) <>


"Wander through the Louvre, leaf through the 'Great Books'--
you won't find many works by women.
Feminists have long sought to explain this absence,
and to question the standards that guide
'canon formation'--the aesthetic judgments deem some works
excellent, and others minor or altogether unworthy of notice."

--Dr. Barbara Melosh (Prof. of English, George Mason Univ.)
Women in Art & Literature, Places Where Women Made History

A Celebration of Women Writers (Mary Mark, 1994-1998)

WRITERS LIVING BETWEEN 3000 BC AND 1000 (Celebration of Women Writers)

"The Wife of Bath [Chaucer's Canterbury Tales], a literary figure familiar to most, [provides]... a bold and vivacious answer to the classical and medieval antifeminist traditions which depict women as the bane of Adam, the root of all evil, the source of temptation, or, at the opposite pole, as idealized and virginal objects of worship. The Wife brashly speaks out against the misogynistic teachings of the Church Fathers, asking,
"Who peyntede the leon, tel me who?
By God, if wommen hadde writen stories,
As clerkes han withinne hire oratories,
They wolde han writen of men moore wikkednesse
Than al the mark of Adam may redresse."

( From Dr. Deborah Everhart's course "Medieval Women: Tradition and Counter-Tradition," focusing on "medieval women who have struggled to find a voice and write themselves, despite the constraints of an oppressively patriarchal world. The abbess Heloise, the mystics Julian of Norwich and Margery of Kempe, the poet Marie de France, and the scholar Christine de Pisan all speak out against misogynistic inscriptions of women's roles
as they attempt to write their own 'stories.'")

Women Writers of the Middle Ages (Bonnie Duncan, English Dept., Millersville Univ., 1997)

The Brown University Women Writers Project (WWP) an "electronic textbase of women's writing in English before 1830 . . . intended to support a wide range of activities, including new research on texts, information technology, and cultural history; publications and other textbase products; and innovative approaches to teaching." Julia Flanders, Textbase Editor, 13-May-1998 <>

Section III: Women's Writings, from SELECTED SOURCES IN WOMEN'S HISTORY, 1400-1700 C. E. (Margaret Schaus, Haverford College Library, Nov. 1995)

Renaissance Women Online offers "electronic versions of primary works in English by women writers from the period 1500-1670," with short introductions and brief essays on the cultural contexts of the works.
Restoration to Romanticism offers a more limited selection. See Women Writers Project Text List, with ordering information for obtaining print versions.

In Her Own Words: Elizabeth I Onstage and Online (Brown Univ. WWP & Rhode Island Office of Library and Information Services) "a series of performances that dramatize the life and times of Elizabeth I, Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. . . . [b]ased on original texts written by the monarch herself," including links to
Queen Elizabeth I: Speeches, Performance Photograph, Related Sites, Bibliography, Queen Elizabeth I: Chronology of her life, and Queen Elizabeth I: Family Tree.

Victorian Women Writers Project (Gen. Editor: Perry Willett, Indiana Univ.)
List of e-texts available:

Women in History, featuring biographies of several Women Writers <>

The Virginia Woolf Society of Great Britain (1998)

Anna Akhmatova (Celebration of Women Writers)
Anna Akhmatova page, by Jill Dybka
Odessa Web
Russian Poets of the 20th Century (Cyrillic)

Nadine Gordimer --Nobel Prize in Literature, 1991
Writing and Being - Her Nobel Lecture from December 7, 1991 |
(from Gifts of Speech: Women's Speeches from Around the World)

Women Nobel Prize Laureates (Nobel Prize Internet Archive)

Voices From the Gaps, "an instructional World Wide Web site
focusing on the lives and works of women writers of color"
(Dept. of English and Program in American Studies, Univ. of Minnesota 1998-1999)

WIF: Women in French, a bilingual website, promotes the study of francophone women writers
and of women more generally in francophone countries,
with information about conferences and other events, publications, the WIF e-mail list, related links, and more.)

WIG: Women in German (Bowdoin) "provides a democratic forum for all people interested in
feminist approaches to German literature and culture or in the intersection of gender
with other categories of analysis such as sexuality, class, race, and ethnicity";
includes information about conferences, publications, the WIG-L list, and related links.

"If in my life I have developed any ability to understand those who are other to me,
other in race or gender or culture or sexual preference,
a good deal of my training in empathy must have come from
the practice fiction and poetry have given me
in taking on other selves, other lives."
--David H. Richter, Falling into Theory, 1994

african-american women

Blacks, Indians, Women: 1800-1899 - Primary Sources
(bibliography compiled by William Howarth, Princeton Univ.)

Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color (Prof. Toni McNaron, Dept. of English; Prof. Carol Miller, Program in American Studies; & Laurie Dickinson, graduate student in English, Univ. of Minnesota)

African-American Women On-line Archival Collections (Special Collections, Duke Univ.)
Slave letters and memoirs of
African American Women (Women's Archives, Special Collections Library, Duke Univ.)

Voice of the Shuttle: African American, with links to websources on African American women (UC Santa Barbara)

WRITING BLACK: Literature and History written by and on African Americans (Andrew L.Graham, American Studies Dept., Keele Univ. UK; 1998)

African American Slavery and Abolition - Reader Resources: Texts and Contexts (Heath Anthology of American Literature website, Gen. Ed. Paul Lauter)

African American Women Writers of the 19th Century (The Schomburg Center)

"'We Were the Heart of the Struggle': Women in the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement [in the early 1960s]" (Jocelyn Ulrich, Senior Thesis for Russell Sage College, Troy, NY): "Ms. Ulrich mixes her own commentary and analysis with lengthy exerpts from oral history interviews with participants who took part in the intense anti-segregation struggles in Birmingham, Alabama in the early 1960s," Andor Skotnes Ph.D., faculty advisor.

Alice Walker (by Toni McNaron, 1998), Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color
(Dept. of English & Program in American Studies, Univ. of Minnesota, 1998-1999)

Annina's Alice Walker Page (Anniina Jokinen, 1998).

Webpage of Alice Walker, with chronology of her life and synopsis of the film The Color Purple

Quilts and Art in [Alice Walker's] "Everyday Use"


Toni Morrison & Beloved

Toni Morrison -- Nobel Prize in Literature 1993
Nobel Lecture - Delivered December 7, 1993
Gifts of Speech: Women's Speeches from Around the World)

Belles Lettres: A Review of Books by Women, Spring 1994 v9 n3 p38(7)
Toni Morrison. (novel 'Beloved') (Interview) Angels Carabi.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's novel, 'Beloved,' presents the painful struggles of African slaves in the US. Although
the novel may bring back painful memories, the pain it generates ultimately makes readers understand more
about human nature. The water imagery in 'Beloved' was intended to show what rebirth is all about and at the
same time remind readers of the dangers of things unknown. Morrison believes that if people could live through
a horrible experience, then the experience must be written about to make people realize that the human spirit
can triumph over tribulations. Infotrac Article A16009744

The Web Page of Toni Morrison's Beloved, a collaborative project for the Fall 1995 English 316K: American Literature class (Instructor: Michele Maynard) at the University of Texas at Austin (Ali Lakhia, Glenn Schuetz, Katie Gillette, Scott Lloyd) <> with links to:
Biographical Information on Toni Morrison
Parallel Themes Found in Beloved: Race, Gender, Family relationships, and Supernatural influences
Historical Events affecting Characters in "Beloved"
Anthology on Toni Morrison's Work

Toni Morrison References On The Internet (Eric Jerome Bauer, for Contemporary American Fiction, Dr. Larry Schwartz at Montclair State University) <>
with six major headings: Biography, Bibliography:
Critical Sources, Essays, including Essays on Beloved; Research, Discussion, and Search.

Film Version of Beloved, 1998 (Internet Movie Database)

Infotrac 2000 Expanded Academic Index articles

Jet, Oct 19, 1998 v94 n21 p60(4)
Oprah Winfrey stars as a former slave in compelling drama 'Beloved.' (Cover Story)
Oprah Winfrey plays an ex-slave in the feature film based on Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved.'
Winfrey, who produced the film, felt compelled to bring the story to the screen after reading the book. Article A21239664

African American Review, Fall 1998 v32 n3 p415(12)
Looking into the self that is no self: an examination of subjectivity in 'Beloved.' Jennifer
L. Holden-Kirwan.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved' attempts to repress the memory of slavery while providing a space
for Africans and African American slaves to gain subjectivity or freedom. Beloved portrays the condition and
treatment of African men, women and children slaves aboard a typical ship and deliberately represents them as
subjects rather than objects of repression. The characters in the novel, however, find this transformation to
subjectivity elusive as Morrison reveals how society was reluctant legally and socially to acknowledge African
Americans as free and valid citizens. Article A21232162

The Explicator, Spring 1998 v56 n3 p154(3)
Morrison's 'Beloved.' (novel by woman author Toni Morrison) Angela C. Simpson.
Abstract: Woman author Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved' investigates the notion that unspeakable things such
as the subject of slavery should remain unspoken and should therefore not be passed on to a younger
generation of impressionable listeners. If, for example, the story of slavery was not passed on to those who had
never experienced its horrors, they would be protected from the past. The last few lines that Morrison wrote in
the book, however, might very well have suggested that slavery is not a story to overlook. 'Beloved' is
evaluated. Article A20792502

Studies in American Fiction, Spring 1997 v25 n1 p81(18)
Imagining slavery: Toni Morrison and Charles Johnson. Timothy L. Parrish.
Abstract: African-American writers from the time of slave narratives on have concerned themselves with the
experience of slavery, and the barrier they cross in the movement from slavery to freedom is the point at which
the continuity of African-American identity is fashioned. The depictions of slavery in Toni Morrison's 'Beloved'
and Charles Johnson's 'Oxherding Tale' are only at first glance diametrically opposed. Although they offer
differing views of the present, they understand that slavery's meaning cannot only be re-seen, not recaptured.
Both Morrison and Johnson realize that deriving meaning from slavery's heritage is an ongoing collective work. Article A19554441

College Literature, Oct 1996 v23 n3 p117(10)
Spitting out the seed: ownership of mother, child, breasts, milk and voice in Toni
Morrison's 'Beloved.' ([De]Colonizing Reading/[Dis]Covering the Other) Michele Mock.

Abstract: Toni Morrison's 'Beloved' portrayed the mother-and-child relationship as a form of ownership at its
most basic and natural level. The child is owned by the mother since she has given birth to it and nurtures it.
However, the mother is a slave and under the system of slavery, she is an owned object, not an owning
subject. Thus, even her child is not hers, not even her milk is hers to give to her child. But her whole story,
which she had struggled to live out, is a liberative one. Article A18906106

The Mississippi Quarterly, Fall 1996 v49 n4 p727(15)
Cries of outrage: three novelists' use of history. Donna Haisty Winchell.
Abstract: Slavery is an outrage in the books of William Styron, Sherley Anne Williams, and Toni Morrison.
The chief cause of the success of Styron's 'The Confessions of Nat Turner' was his use of the insurrection
leader's point of view, and critics conceded Styron's ability to penetrate Nat Turner's mind. Williams's 'Dessa
Rose' and Toni Morrison's 'Beloved' portray slaves driven to violence by slavery. Ultimately, though, 'Beloved'
is a novel about triumphing over the past. Styron's hero loses all power, while the relatively unknown slave
women depicted by Williams and Morrison become heroines by assuming life for 20th century readers. Article A19408051

College Literature, Oct 1995 v22 n3 p109(12)
"Building up from fragments": the oral memory process in some recent
African-American written narratives. Helen Lock.

Abstract: The memory process generated by oral cultures is examined through a critical reading of three
recent African American novels. The novels are Toni Morrison's 'Beloved,' Paule Marshall's 'Praisesong for the
Widow' and David Bradley's 'The Chaneysville Incident.' In these narratives, remembering is not just textual
representation; instead, the thought process itself is a creative reconstruction in which the readers themselves
participate by 'hearing' the voice within the written text. Article A18110022

Contemporary Literature, Fall 1995 v36 n3 p445(19)
Pain and the unmaking of self in Toni Morrison's 'Beloved.' Kristin Boudreau.
Abstract: Novelist Toni Morrison questions the traditional portrayal of personal suffering as a means of
self-redemption and and self-realization. Morrison's 'Beloved' deals with the experiences of former slaves who
believe that their oppressive existence is necessary in the path to transcendence. This redemptive view of
suffering is a constant theme in African American blues music and European romantic traditions. 'Beloved'
presents an alternative to self-development that does not necessitate suffering. Article A17474649

The Explicator, Fall 1995 v54 n1 p46(4)
Morrison's 'Beloved.' Virginia Heumann Kearney.

Abstract: Toni Morrison subverts images of the bird and its traditional symbolic meanings in her novel
'Beloved.' The images intensify the brutality of slavery. One of the most powerful bird images she uses is that of
the hummingbirds that attack Sethe, dramatizing her madness. Another bird she subverted is that of the dove.
She has a character associate it with the mornings when the guards would force them to commit fellatio for their
'breakfast' semen. Morrison, by subverting these traditional images, forces the reader to shift stereotypical
perceptions of the Africans. Article A18054459

MELUS, Fall 1995 v20 n3 p21(12)
Surviving what haunts you: the art of invisibility in 'Ceremony,' 'The Ghost
Writer,' and 'Beloved.' Naomi R. Rand.
Abstract: There are non-white writers who struggle with their pasts resulting from the stigma of their
ethnic backgrounds. Philip Roth (Jewish American), Toni Morrison (African American) and Leslie
Marmon Silko (Native American) belong to historically-persecuted racial groups. Roth's 'The Ghost
Writer,' Morrison's 'Beloved,' and Silko's 'Ceremony' are books which have recreated spirits imbued
with human and feminine attributes to describe the process to selfhood. Article A18298423

The Explicator, Wntr 1995 v53 n2 p120(4)
Morrison's 'Beloved.' (Toni Morrison) Katherine Leake.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's 'Beloved' deals with geographical displacement. Different instances involving
physical dislocation are presented while connecting the idea of having a home with the concept of experiencing
a self. The novel describes two types of journeys involved in this exercise. One deals with voluntariness in
leaving one's place while the other deals with the absence of consent wherein identities are lost. Article A16864727

African American Review, Summer 1994 v28 n2 p189(8)
Giving blood to the scraps, haints, history, and Hosea in 'Beloved.' (Black
Women's Culture Issue) Robert L. Broad.
Abstract: The character Beloved in Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved' represents the sixty-million or
more Africans who died as captives in Africa or in the slave ships. Sethe, Denver and the readers are
tempted to read the spirit Beloved as that of the child killed by Sethe. However, Morrison indicates
that boundaries of individuality are irrelevant in the spirit world and implicity criticizes American
cultural preoccupation with self-reliance. The history of the novel's epigraph, which St. Paul had
derived from Hosea, reinforces Morrison's thematic concerns. Article A15787227

African American Review, Summer 1994 v28 n2 p223(13)
"These are the facts of the darky's history": thinking history and reading
names in four African American texts. (Black Women's Culture Issue) Adam
Abstract: Names become symbols of liberation of the female protagonists in Gayl Jones'
'Corregidora,' Toni Morrison's 'Beloved,' Octavia Butler's 'Kindred' and Sherley Anne Williams'
'Dessa Rose.' These writers make the reader aware of the problematics of historical representation.
The voice of the oppressed is completely controlled by the oppressor. So naming becomes symbolic
of the efforts of the black women to find a voice. Article A15787233

Hypatia, Summer 1994 v9 n3 p1(18)
Identity, knowledge and Toni Morrison's 'Beloved': questions about understanding
racism. Susan E. Babbitt.
Author's Abstract: COPYRIGHT Hypatia Inc. 1994
In discussing Drucilla Cornell's remarks about Toni Morrison's Beloved, I consider epistemological questions
raised by the acquiring of understanding of racism, particularly the deep-rooted racism embodied in social
norms and values. I suggest that questions about understanding racism are, in part, questions about personal
and political identities and that questions about personal and political identities are often, importantly,
epistemological questions. Article A16310386

College Literature, June 1994 v21 n2 p105(12)
Reconstructing kin: family, history and narrative in Toni Morrison's 'Beloved.' (novel)
Dana Heller.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved' depicts the search for stronger familial bonds among newly-freed
black slaves in 19th century US. The female protagonist. Sethe, undergoes separation from her family and
attempts to mediate this separation by projecting her need for a family on an ambiguous character named
Beloved. Various interpretations of Beloved's character show that she might be the ghost of Sethe's dead child
or a a living person for whom she feels a maternal sentiment. Article A15691733

The Explicator, Spring 1993 v51 n3 p192(3)
Morrison's 'Beloved.' (Toni Morrison) Elsie F. Mayer.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved' reconstructs the turmoils of blacks during America's economic
rebuilding and demonstrates that violence is essential before a new order is formed. The protagonist, Sethe, an
oppressed black, kills her daughter on the grounds that death is better than bondage. Sethe, whose name
resembles the Egyptian god Set who was exiled to the desert for killing his brother Osiris, resembles the god in
her will to destroy herself. Article A14374599

African American Review, Spring 1992 v26 n1 p41(10)
Call and response as critical method: African-American oral traditions and 'Beloved.' (by
Toni Morrison) (Women Writers Issue) Maggie Sale.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's novel 'Beloved' uses Afro-American oral traditions to reject the accepted single
version of history for one composed of multiple perspectives with different levels of authority. The novel adopts
the call and response, improvisation and repetition techniques of story-telling to emphasize the narrative's
communal nature and the relationship between author and audience. 'Beloved' is a multivocal narrative that
accepts the differences in the Afro-American community without forcing the false unity preferred for
Afro-American literature. [abstract only] Article A12479388

MELUS, Winter 1991 v17 n4 p91(13)
Narrative possibilities at play in Toni Morrison's 'Beloved.' Giulia Scarpa.
Abstract: Toni Morrison's 1987 novel 'Beloved' uses mythical themes to form a metaphor of compassion for
its readers. The story concerns infanticide among black women after the Civil War, drawing upon the historical
case of Margaret Garner. The fiction focuses on the ghost of a slain baby girl who haunts a home in Cincinnati,
OH. The narration is fragmented, indicating the damaged personalities of the principal characters who must
achieve wholeness. Article A13472000

Carol Shields & The Stone Diaries

Canadian Women in History (Susan Merritt, 1998)
Canadian Literature Archive (joint project of St. John's College, English
Dept. of the University of Manitoba, and the Archives at the Dafoe Library at the University of Manitoba.) or Version with Frames
Pulitzer Prizes home page
Carol Shields (Well Known Canadians)
Carol Shields (Stephen Hurder, 1998)
The Stone Diaries - 1994 Rev. by Ann Cowan (Literascape, Duthie Books, 1997)

Contemporary Literature, Fall 1998 v39 n3 p338(18)
An interview with Carol Shields.
(Interview) Donna Krolik Hollenberg.
Abstract: Author Carol Shields's novels examine the reflections of middle-class characters on the issues they
face toward the end of the 20th century, where personal and social history intersect. Shields has long been
interested in history, feeling how the historical record is constructed is more important than the events
described. Men in her books are confused by changing roles for both genders. Article A21229909

The Writer, July 1998 v111 n7 p3(4)
Framing the structure of a novel. (novelist Carol Shields discusses how she structures her
novels)(Cover Story) Carol Shields.
Abstract: Shields loves novels crammed with people, events, emotional upsets, and despair. The style of more
recent novels is looser and more random, unlike her early concrete-like structures. The traditional
conflict/solution model is a less essential structure. Article A20790979

People Weekly, June 26, 1995 v43 n25 p32(1)
Late bloomer. (novelist Carol Shields discusses her work)(Brief Article) Joanne Kaufman.
Full Text: COPYRIGHT Time Inc. 1995
Article A17069592

Maclean's, May 1, 1995 v108 n18 p76(2)
A prairie Pulitzer. (Carol Shields wins Pulitzer Prize) Diane Turbide.
Abstract: Winnipeg, Manitoba novelist Carol Shields won the Pulitzer Prize in 1995 for her 16th
novel, 'The Stone Diaries.' The work won the Canadian Governor General's Literary Award in 1993.
Shields' life and work are profiled. Article A16895368

Canadian Literature, Spring 1998 n156 p59(23)
"The coded dots of life": Carol Shields's diaries and stones. (novelist) Gordon E.
Abstract: The novel "The Stone Diaries" by Carol Shields depicts the inability to establish structure in the
midst of discontinuity. Although her characters recognize patterns in even the smallest forms, such as bacteria,
or "the coded dots of life," they are unable to organize their own lives due to the inherently chaotic nature of
human relationships and existence. Article A20782567

Communication, Cinema, & Media Studies

"Bringing the Wildman Back Home: Television and the Politics of Masculinity,"
applying modern men's movements to an in-depth analysis of the TV show Home Improvement,
by Charmaine McEachern (Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media & Culture 7:2 [1994]).

Cross-Gender Communication in Cyberspace
A graduate research paper by Gladys We, Dept. of Communication, Simon Fraser Univ. 1993.

Feminist Film Criticism: A Guide to Library and Web Resources (Women's Studies librarian Sara Brownmiller, Univ. of Oregon) [The following links were current as of 4/98:]

Women in Cinema

inforM Film Reviews

inforM Film Reviews - gay/lesbian

Camera Obscura

Women Artists/Women and Film


Bibliographical Aid for Filmresearch

Media and Communication Studies

Annotated Bibliography of Feminist Aesthetics in the Literary, Performing and Visual Arts

Films and Video on Women, Gender, and Feminism (master list for ASU, ASUwest, NAU, and UofA Libraries, from Northern Arizona University's online bibliography)

Gender and Communication (American Communication Association)

Gender Differences in Communication: An Intercultural Experience
by Becky Michele Mulvaney, Dept. of Communication, Florida Atlantic Univ., 1994.
"Sexism and Misogyny: Who Takes the Rap? Misogyny, gangsta rap, and The Piano" by bell hooks, 1994.

Gender, Ethnicity and Class in Media & Communication Studies (from Wales), including Gender and Advertising

inforM Women's Studies: Film Reviews (Larisa Kofman, Univ. of Maryland)

OutTakes: Lesbianism in Film (Vidgrrrl): More than 1000 films with lesbian content are listed with brief reviews.  site includes photos, essays, film trailers, screensavers and even it own talk radio show: 

Representations of Women in the Media (editors of RE/PRESENTATION magazine) in magazines, advertising, the arts, film, and television. <>

Scary Women in Film (UCLA Film and Television Archive, from a 1994 symposium)

Sexism in Language, an annotated bibliography (Madeline Finch. Lawrence Univ.)

Women & Cinema <> from Academic Info: Film Studies, an Annotated Directory of Internet Resources

Women in Cinema: A Reference Guide (Philip McEldowney, Univ. of Virginia), includes essays, annotated bibliographies, and more.
Includes a short-list of the
top 5 sources for women in cinema, and Annotated Bibliography of Feminist Aesthetics in the Literary, Performing, and Visual Arts, 1970-1990 compiled by Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter (Univ. of Maryland).

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