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(Do you know about these women? If not, consider Robert Cooney's article
"Taking a New Look The Enduring Significance of the American Woman Suffrage Movement."
Part V: U.S. Woman Suffrage Is Won
Learn more about selected WS topics by clicking the hyperlinks embedded in these timelines.
And if you find inaccuracies, bugs, or other websites relevant to timeline topics, please let me know: firstname.lastname@example.org
The timeline pages are under construction and probably always will be...
|1900||Carrie Lane Chapman Catt (1859-1947) takes over the reins of NASWA. Chapman Catt, Iowa State College, teacher, school superintendent, journalist, lecturer, pacifist, was a field organizer with Susan B. Anthony. Catt worked tirelessly as a fundraiser, planner, and administrator; and led the New York campaigns, as well as national and international organizations for women's rights.|
Tarbell exposed the monopoly of Standard Oil in
articles for McClure's
The first U.S. postage stamp bearing a woman's likeness appeared. The woman is Martha Washington.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (born in 1815) dies.
Australia passes woman suffrage legislation.
in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood."
Marie Curie, Nobel Laureate (1867-1934; Poland/France)
|1903||Marie Curie, with her husband Pierre, became the first
female Nobel Prize winner, for physics (and more biographies) when the Curies isolated enough radium to
confirm its existence. Marie
Curie also earned her doctorate, the first awarded to a woman in Europe, that year. Marie's success in isolating pure polonium and pure radium to remove any remaining doubts about the existence of the two new elements won her another Nobel Prize in 1911.
|1903||Maggie Lena Walker, a former slave, opened the
Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank, the first financial
institute founded by a woman.
Women's National Trade Union League was established, with Mary Morton Kehew
as president. At the annual AFL convention, blue collar
and middle class women unite to form the National Women's
Trade Union League to help organize women.
|1906||Susan B. Anthony, born in 1820, dies. (see interview on Failure Is Impossible: Susan B.
Anthony in Her Own Words with Lynn Sherr,
Finland grants women the right to vote.
|1907||Harriet Stanton Blatch, Elizabeth Cady Stanton's
daughter, forms the Equality League of Self Supporting
Women which becomes the Women's Political Union in 1910.
She introduced the English suffragists' tactics of
parades, street speakers, and pickets.
Qiu Jin, Chinese revolutionary and poet, was beheaded, then acknowleged immediately as a heroine and a martyr who died fighting enemies of the Chinese people and she became a symbol of women's independence.
Frida Kahlo (1907-1954), Mexican artist, lived to be known as the 20th centurys quintessential autobiographical artist--though it is sometimes difficult to separate the cult of personality surrounding Kahlo from her artistic accomplishment. Most of Kahlo's works depict her personal saga (see images of Kahlo's Self-Portraits): the disabilities she suffered as a result of the accident; her turbulent marriage to Mexican muralist Diego Rivera; her involvement with Communism and the Mexican Revolution; and, ultimately, her indomitable will to create. Like many artists in the decade after the Mexican Revolution of 1917, Frida Kahlo's art was influenced by the surge of nationalism known as Mexicanidad. Eschewing European models, the simple, naive character of Kahlo's imagery, the sometimes fantastic subject matter and the vividness of her colors were influenced by Mexican folk art. She, herself, often wore traditional costumes and elaborately braided her hair with ribbons, bows, combs, and fresh flowers to express her identification with Mexico's indigenous culture. (See The Original Frida Kahlo Home Page, an announcement regarding the publication of The Diary of Frida Kahlo: An Intimate Self-Portrait, Introd. and transl by Carlos Fuentes; and "Sonnet in Primary Colors" for Frida Kahlo by Rita Dove, formerly U.S. Poet Laureate.)
|1909||Mary White Ovington helped found the NAACP.|
attorney Crystal Eastman published Work Accidents and the
Law, an influential work that led to her
drafting of the first U. S. workers' compensation law.
Two years later, she helped found the National Woman's
The first suffrage parade in New York City is organized by the Women's Political Union.
Washington state grants womens suffrage.
elaborate campaign ever mounted for suffrage succeeds in California
by only 3,587 votes, an average of one vote in
every precinct in the state.
National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage is founded, issuing an official journal, the Woman's Protest.
women marched down Fifth Avenue in New York City
in a pro-suffrage demonstration, with up to a half
Teddy Roosevelt's Progressive Party includes woman suffrage in their platform.
Oregon, Kansas and Arizona adopt woman suffrage.
Congressional Union is formed by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns as an auxiliary of the National American Woman Suffrage
Association, for the
exclusive purpose of securing passage of a federal
amendment. Alice Paul (1885-1977),
American feminist and social reformer, was a militant
supporter of women's rights and used her skills as a
speaker and propagandist to fight for the 19th Amendment
to the United States Consitution. She also fought for the
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The ERA, which would remove
in one stroke all legal, economic, and social
restrictions on women, was to be introduced into the U.S.
Congress in 1923, but did not pass.
The Territory of Alaska adopts woman suffrage. It is the first bill approved by the new governor.
The National Woman's Party is founded by Alice Paul and others to take a more "direct action" approach to gaining public attention for the suffrage cause. The day preceding President Wilson's inauguration, 5-8,000 suffragists parade in Washington, D.C., organized by Alice Paul. See also photo and bio of Ida Bell Wells-Barnett. They are mobbed by abusive crowds along the way and hundreds of women are injured but no one is arrested. The National American Woman Suffrage Association leadership expels the militants (Alice Paul, et al.).
Norway adopts woman suffrage.
"I myself have
never been able to find precisely what feminism is.
|1914||Montana and Nevada adopt woman suffrage.|
transcontinental tour by suffragists, including Mabel
Vernon and Sara Bard Field,
gathers over a half-million signatures on petitions to
Margaret Sanger founded the National Birth Control League (now the Planned Parenthood Federation of America). Sanger began lecturing across the country and gathering supporters and funds to aid her efforts.
Denmark grants women the right to vote.
|1916||36 National American Woman Suffrage Association state chapters endorse NAWSA President Carrie Chapman Catt's "Winning Plan," a unified campaign combining state and federal work to get the amendment through Congress and ratified by the states. Catt also founded the League of Women Voters and worked for world peace. "It is to Mrs. Catt more than to any single figure besides Susan B. Anthony that American women owe their right to vote." (Eleanor Flexner, Notable American .Women; see Links to Texts by Carrie Chapman Catt, and Jane Cox's Racism and Carrie Chapman Catt Today)|
York adopts woman suffrage.
In January, National Woman's Party (NWP) pickets appear in front of the White House holding aloft two banners: "Mr. President, What Will You Do for Woman Suffrage?" and "How Long Must Women Wait for Liberty?" Sentinels remain stationed there permanently regardless of weather or violent public response, with hourly changes of shift. In June, arrests begin: nearly 500 women are arrested, 168 women serve jail time, and some are brutalized by their jailers. The jailed suffragists are released from prison in 1918, when appellate court rules that all arrests were illegal.
The Netherlands and the Soviet Union grant women the right to vote.
|1917||Inessa Armand, Clara Zetkin, and Nadezhda Krupskaya pressured Russian officials to sanction International Women's Day. (see a history of International Women's Day and also 1996 United Nations' article.)|
|1917||Mary Pickford became America's first female movie star.|
|1917-1919||Pacifist Jeannette Rankin of Montana is served her first term as the first elected U. S Congresswoman (and again from 1941-1943).|
Wilson first states his public support of the
federal woman suffrage amendment, and argues for
womens suffrage at the end of WW I.
Canada and Luxembourg adopt woman suffrage.
Eastman organized the First Feminist Congress,
which supported the Equal Rights Amendment. The
Volstead Act forbade the sale of alcohol, a law
influenced by Frances Willard's Women's Christian
Temperance Union (WCTU).
The most prominent members of the NWP who had been imprisoned for picketing the White House tour the country on a train called the "Prison Special." At each stop they speak about the need for suffrage and about their prison experiences.
First Lady Edith Wilson assumed presidential powers for eighteen months after Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke.
Jan: the NWP lights and guards a
"Watchfire for Freedom," to be
maintained until the Suffrage Amendment passes.
The Business& Professional Women/USA was founded.
Austria, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic and Slovakia), Germany, Poland, and Sweden grant women the right to vote.
Molly Dewson supported the New Deal and the
Business leader and lecturer Mary Parker Follett earned the title "Mother of Management."
|1920||Jane Addams, Jeanette Rankin, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and Helen Keller helped establish the American
Civil Liberties Union.
14: The League of Women Voters was founded as "a mighty experiment"
at the Victory Convention of the National American Woman
Suffrage Association in Chicago, Illinois. By now, 33
states have ratified the amendment, but final victory is
still three states away.
Woman Suffrage in Other Countries
Most other nations of the world have enacted woman-suffrage legislation, including Belgium (partial, 1919; full, 1948); Ecuador (1929); South Africa (1930); Brazil and Uruguay (1932); Turkey and Cuba (1934); France (1944); Italy and Japan (1946); China and Argentina (1947); South Korea and Israel (1948); Chile, India, and Indonesia (1949). Switzerland granted the franchise to women in 1971. By the 1980s, women could vote virtually everywhere in the world, except for a few Muslim countries. In addition, women who attained national leadership posts in modern times include prime ministers Golda Meir (Israel), Indira Gandhi (India), Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan, and see WIC bio), and Margaret Thatcher (United Kingdom), and President Corazon Aquino of the Philippines.
TOP of this page Part
V: U.S. Woman Suffrage Is Won
Women's Studies Historical Timelines were prepared by Cora Agatucci, 1997
Part I: Women Make Early History
Part II: 17th & 18th Century Women
Part III: Modern Struggles for Equality
Part IV: Struggle for the Vote
Go to Part VI: Women in the 20th Century
& "Second Wave" Feminism
Part VII: Women of the 1990s & Sources and Resources for Further Study
WS 101 Syllabus Cora's Classes Cora's Home page[../../../footer.htm]