Maps 3: History - Middle Period
HUM 213 Historical Overview
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Map 1.9 "Peoples and Kingdoms of the Roman World, 526 [C.E.]"

[Map Caption:]  "The provinces of the Roman Empire had always been home to a population diverse in language and ethnicity. By the early sixth century [C.E.], the territory of the western empire had become a mixture of diverse political units as well. Italy and most of the former western provinces were ruled by kingdoms organized by different non-Roman peoples, who had moved into former imperial territory over several centuries. The eastern empire remained under the political control of the emperor in Constantinople" ("Peoples and Kingdoms of the Roman World, 526 [C.E.]" [Map.]).

Works Cited

"The Spread of Christianity, 300-600 [C.E]." [Map.] "MapCentral: Christianity." Bedford-St. Martin's Make History. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. <>.
[Reference: <

"Peoples and Kingdoms of the Roman World, 526 [C.E.]." [Map.] "MapCentral: Roman Empire." Bedford-St. Martin's Make History. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. <>.
[Reference: <


The Silk Routes, ca. 200 BCE - 1400 CE

Map 1.10 The Silk Roads ("File:Silk Route.jpg" [Map])

"The Silk Roads" Map Description: Land routes (indicated by red lines) and water routes (indicated by blue lines) retrace the "extensive interconnected network of trade routes . . . connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and Europe" ("Silk Road"). These major overland and maritime trade routes are collectively known as the "Silk Road," named for "the lucrative Chinese silk trade, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)" in China, and became "a major reason for the connection of trade routes into an extensive trans-continental network" covering some 4,000 miles ("Silk Road"). For some 3,000 years, the "Silk Routes . . . were important paths for cultural, commercial and technological exchange . . .," and "silk was by no means the only item traded" ("Silk Road").

Slaves were traded and non-indigenous diseases were spread

Also traveling the Silk Roads were cultures and religions, knowledge and ideas.  better, as well as slave er;; sd slaves trades and non-indigenous diseases and slave trades, and much more.


Works Cited

"File:Silk route.jpg" [Map]. 27 May 2010.Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia Foundation, 2011. Web. 30 Jan. 2011. <>.

"Silk Road." 29 Jan. 2011. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia Foundation, 2011. Web. 30 Jan. 2011. <>.


MIddle Period Arabia and Persia: The World of Islam





Arabia and Persia: The World of Islam

Overview of Middle Period Arabia and Persia

"In the seventh century, the Arab Empire rapidly expanded its territory well beyond the Arabian Peninsula, following in the Bedouin tradition of conducting tribal razzias (raids). By 640, it had conquered the Persian Empire and Egypt, and although the empire would disintegrate by the thirteenth century, the highly developed civilization created by the Muslims would outlive the empire that gave birth to it. In the two centuries following Mohammed's death, Islamic civilization would reach its peak under the first two dynasties, beginning with the Umayyads (661-750), in Damascus, who greatly expanded and unified their territory from Africa to Asia. Under the Abbasids (750-1258), the new capital of Baghdad became a world-renowned center of trade and cultural exchange where trade wealth provided generous patronage for art and scholarship. Harun al-Rashid (786-800) would rule so lavishly that Baghdad under his reign became the model for the Ottoman and Mamluk sultanates depicted in One Thousand and One Nights. Throughout the vast empire, a number of thriving cities (among them Cordoba, Granada, Basra, and Marrakesh) became vital centers for trade and cultural exchange. With the advent of paper manufacture in Baghdad, historians such as al-Mas'udi (896-956) began to record Arab history in writing for the first time. The years between 900 and 1200 represented the peak of Muslim civilization, with its territory stretching from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. Although the Arabic language and belief in Islam (adopted by many conquered kingdoms) unified the empire, as early as 1000 it was already becoming decentralized into various caliphates and dynasties. This period was considered the Golden Age of Islam but it was also a time of great upheaval, with Mongol attacks on the Persian Empire led by Chingis Khan (1162-1227), beginning about 1230; the threat of bubonic plague; and the incursions of Crusaders in the Mediterranean. As the empire expanded and the influence of other civilizations enriched Islamic culture, travel over the Silk Road and other trade routes was common for traders, merchants, and Muslims on spiritual pilgrimage. The twelfth and thirteenth centuries also saw the rise of Sufism and other mystical traditions, such as Bhakti in India. In addition to the Persian and Turkish influences it had absorbed earlier, late Middle Period Arabic culture (especially art) was newly influenced by the Mongols and the Chinese. As the Abassids gradually lost control of their far-flung territories in Africa and elsewhere, the Seljuk Turks seized Baghdad in 1055. The empire began to disintegrate further as Chingis Khan conquered Central Asia and the Middle East, and the Abassid caliphate ended at last in 1258 as the Mongols captured Baghdad in a bloody battle. The Mongols continued to capture territory as far as the Red Sea but were resisted by the Mamluks (former Turkish slaves who had converted to Islam) in Egypt. By the mid-fourteenth century, the Mongol Empire too had begun to break apart and Cairo became the new center of Islamic civilization under the Mamluks."

The Expansion of Islam to 750 C.E. 
[Map ../ExpansionIslam750CE.gif] 

author/title/edition: Reilly, Worlds of History: Volume One: To 1550
chapter: 7. Encounters and Conversions: Monks, Merchants, and Monarchs: Expansion of Salvation Religions, 400 B.C.E. -1400 C.E.
mapnumber: Map 7.3
course: Arab-Israeli History, Western Civilization, World History
resource type: MapCentral
topic: Empires, Middle Ages, Islam, Religion

Islamic Empire Maps

[image: . . .islam_750.jpg


Source of above map:


The Islam Project: Maps "Islam, c. 750"
[Caption:] "By 750 C.E., Islam had spread from Madinah to all of Arabia, then Mesopotamia, Egypt, most of the coastal regions of North Africa, and into Iberia. The major ruling groups of the Middle East at the time, the Christian Byzantines and the Persian Sasanids, had exhausted themselves after years of warfare, weakening their empires and enabling the Muslims to fill a power vacuum. The ease with which Islam spread eastward and westward in the 200 years after the death of Muhammad is further explained by theological divisions and intra-religious persecution within the Christian world. Many Christians in these lands, particularly those from persecuted sects, welcomed the arrival of the Muslims, and converted freely to Islam over the years."




The Expansion of Byzantium, 860-1025
In 860, the Byzantine Empire was only a fraction of its former size. To the west, it had lost most of Italy, to the east, it held only part of Asia Minor. On its northern flank, the Bulgarians had set up an independent state. By 1025, however, the empire had ballooned, its western half embracing the entire area of the Balkans, its eastern arm extending around the Black Sea, and its southern fringe reaching nearly to Tripoli. The year 1025 marked the Byzantine Empire's greatest size after the rise of Islam.

Crusades Maps


The Crusades
Western Europe’s crusading tradition reflected the expansive energy and religious impulses of an emerging civilization. It was directed against Muslims in the Middle East, Sicily, and Spain and against the Eastern Orthodox Christians of the Byzantine Empire as well. The Crusades also involved attacks on Jewish communities, probably the first organized mass pogroms against Jews in Europe’s history.

MapCentral: Crusades

Image: map10_4_Crusades




[image: . . .islam_750.jpg


Source of above map:


The Islam Project . . .
[Caption:] "Crusades: 1096 to 1289 [C.E.]
Beginning in 1096, some Christian Europeans heeded the call of the papacy to launch a series of “holy wars” aimed at gaining control of Jerusalem from the Muslim Arabs and Seljuk Turks. In all, eight crusades were carried out. Jerusalem fell to the Christians in 1099, partly due to the disarray among Muslims. It took Muslims nearly half a century to respond effectively with their own call for defensive jihad, which required fighting against the Crusaders. Under the leadership of Salah al-Din, the Muslims effectively ended the Christian hold on the Holy Land in 1187, shortly after which Jerusalem was restored to Muslim control. It would be another 100 years, however, before the last Christian strongholds (Tripoli and Acre) fell to the Muslims. In general, the Muslims considered the Crusades to be an invasion by European outsiders, and history indicates that the Europeans treated Muslims and Jews much more harshly in comparison to Muslim treatment of Christians. The Christian sacking of Jerusalem and the massacre of its Muslim and Jewish residents during the first Crusade are often remembered as tragic historical examples of religious intolerance."




The Ottoman Empire by the Mid-Fifteenth Century
As Turkic-speaking migrants bearing the religion of Islam penetrated Anatolia, the Ottoman Empire took shape, reaching into southeastern Europe and finally displacing the Christian Byzantine Empire. Subsequently, it came to control much of the Middle East and North Africa as well.

MapCentral: Ottoman Empire



Ottoman Empire Maps

[image: Ottoman_Empire_b.jpg


Source of above map:


Image Reference: Ottoman_Empire_b.jpg

The Ottoman Empire: 1350 to 1918
[Caption:] "This greatest of the Muslim states in terms of duration was founded in the late 13th century by the Ottoman Turks. It lasted until its dissolution after WW I in 1918. Its early phase challenged the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia. In 1389, much of the Balkan Peninsula came under Ottoman rule. The Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453, bringing to an end the 1100-year-rule of the Byzantine Empire/ Next the Ottomans gained control of Mamluk Egypt in 1517, followed by Algiers and most of present-day Hungary by 1529, all of Persia in 1638, and most of the region between the Black and Caspian Seas by the 1650s. These so-called Ottoman wars of conquest fixed in the imagination of the Europeans the image of the Muslim Turks as ferocious and religiously inspired warriors. Beginning in the 1780s, the Ottoman Empire began to weaken, as European powers gained strength and began to vie with each other for access to resources and markets in the Middle East. Most of the northern coast of the Black Sea had slipped away by 1812. The Ottoman Empire lost Greece, Egypt, and Serbia to European-inspired independence movements over the next 60 years. By 1900, Turkey was known as the “Sick Man of Europe,” And by 1912, it had lost nearly all of its European territories. Siding with Germany and the losing Central Powers in World War I doomed the Empire. With the signing of the armistice ending WWI, the Ottoman Empire was dismantled by the Allied Powers, paving the way for the creation of new individual states in the modern Middle East."




Jewish Migrations in the Late Nineteenth Century
Pogroms in eastern Europe, increasingly violent anti-Semitism across the continent, and the search for opportunity motivated Jews to migrate to many parts of the world. Between 1890 and 1914, some five million Jews left Russia alone. They moved to European cities; to North and South America; and, as Zionism progressed, to Palestine.


Europe and the Middle East after World War I
The Great War brought into existence a number of new states, carved out of the old German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires. The new states in Europe were independent as was Turkey, but those in the Middle East—Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and Trans-Jordan—were administered by Britain or France as “mandates” of the League of Nations.

Image: map21_3_EuropeAfterWWI


Major Nazi Concentration Campus in World War II



The Islamic World in the Early Twenty-first Century
An Islamic world of well over a billion people incorporated much of the Afro-Asian land mass but was divided among many nations and along linguistic and ethnic lines as well. The long term split between the majority Sunnis and the minority Shias also sharpened in the new millennium.

MapCentral: Islam



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Last Updated: 13 April 2011

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Humanities Department, Central Oregon Community College
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